This year UMUN takes a step back to the classic committees of a model UN, with four double committees. The topics, which will be central to the conference, vary and are not always brought into the limelight.
Bolivia, China, Egypt, Ethiopia, France, Japan, Kazakhstan, New Zealand, Russia, Senegal, Sweden, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, the United States and Uruguay.
Topic 1: South China sea dispute
China, Vietnam, the Philippines and other South East Asian nations have competing territorial and jurisdictional claims over the South China Sea. The waters of the South China Sea constitute a vital trading passage between China, Japan and Korea and additionally serve as an important bulk trading route with key markets in the Americas and Europe, amongst others. Moreover, the South China Sea contains rich, though unregulated and over-exploited fishing grounds and is said to hold significant reserves of undiscovered oil and gas, which is an aggravating factor in the dispute. Tensions in the sea have risen and there is uncertainty of the future in the region.
Diplomatic effort of the delegates is necessary to come up with an effective resolution to solve the dispute from escalating militarily, necessary to obtain peace and international security.
Topic 2: International criminal justice responses to combat terrorist actions
The reach and pace of influence and action that non-state terrorist actors such as Islamic State (IS) have in this generation is fearsome. Terrorist actions have gained backing by the international community both militarily as well as financially. Wide-spread of terrorist actions make the world vulnerable to attacks and puts nations at an imminent risk.
The Council must discuss means to tackle and eradicate the growing influences of terrorist actions. Developing an effective resolution will set an example for multilateral cooperation in the collective aim of upholding international peace and security.
Topic 1: Refugee crisis in MENA region
One of the main problems that has been created parallel with wars and crises in the Middle East and North African region (MENA) is an increase of refugees. Millions of civilians fled their homes during the currently ongoing war in Syria, Iraq and different parts of the region. Although some of the refugees have found their way to regions further away from the conflict, the majority remain within the region, putting a huge strain on the neighboring countries. Finding a long-term solution while providing sufficient shelter for the influx of refugees is a difficult undertaking.
It will be the task of the committee to work out a sustainable solution for all actors involved.
Topic 2: Justification of measures against torture
Today we see torture being used as a means to elicit information as an interrogation technique and deter opposition by states all over the world. The use of torture however directly contravenes the United Nations Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (UNCAT). Nonetheless there are countries that argue that the use of torturous techniques is of vital importance for public safety as the extraction of information could lead to possible information to rescue civilians at risk. On the other hand, there are countries that oppose this and argue for alternative means to torture to obtain information.
Delegates should come together to address the ways and extent to which torturous measures to elicit information can or should be used.
Afghanistan, Argentina, Australia, Brazil, China, Ethiopia, France, Germany, Morocco, Mexico, Nigeria, New Zealand, Russia, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States, Pakistan, Poland, Saudi Arabia and Sweden.
Australia, Brazil, China, France, Germany, Ghana, Greece, India, Italy, Japan, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russia, Somalia, South Africa, the United Kingdom, the United States, Uganda, Vietnam and Zimbabwe.
Topic 1: Human trafficking of Women and Children
Trafficking in human beings, is one of the fastest-growing areas of organized crime. Regardless of the route of entry, a high number of women and children trafficked for sexual exploitation suffer extreme violations of their human rights. It is a multi-dimensional threat that calls for cross-border cooperation. Criminal justice responses to human trafficking require attention.
It is up to the council to find ways to fortify measures to prevent the ever-increasing number of persons falling victim to human trafficking.
Topic 2: To be announced
HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL
Topic 1: IUU in Southeast Asia and the problems with modern day slavery
Fishery is the lucrative backbone of Southeast Asia. As a billion dollar industry many fishermen use Illegal, unreported, unregulated fishing (IUU) and its consequences are damaging to the ecosystem in the waters and moreover rely on migrant labor who are trafficked. The working condition of people trafficked in person (TIP) is horrendous and fatalities on fishing vessels are common. The situation of TIP within the fishing industry in Southeast Asia has been called modern day slavery and yet products produced by fishing companies using migrant workers are sold by corporation all over the world, including Europe and North America.
The council will discuss how to address the situation of TIP in IUU fishing within Southeast Asia.
Topic 2: LGBTQ rights in Africa.
Although homophobia is widespread all over the world, the rights of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Queer (LGBTQ) seems to be particularly limited in Africa. In Kenya, anal exams to determine your sexual orientation is humiliation and legal while in Uganda, same sex relation can be punished with a capital sentence pursuant to their “Ugandan Anti-homosexuality Act” of 2014. Most countries in Africa have not decriminalized homosexuality and violence against LGBTQ people and activists are widespread with the perpetrators, in many cases, enjoying impunity.
The aim of the discussions will be how to offer protection against violence and discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity, as well as how to address the situation of LGBTQ-Rights in many parts of Africa.
Botswana, China, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ecuador, Ethiopia, France, India, Kenya, Russia, the United Kingdom, the United States, Paraguay, Philippines, Republic of Korea and Qatar.
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